February 21, 1788 – September 20, 1860
Arthur Schopenhauer was a German philosopher. He is best known for his 1818 work The World as Will and Representation, which characterizes the phenomenal world as the product of a blind and insatiable metaphysical will. Building on the transcendental idealism of Immanuel Kant, Schopenhauer developed an atheistic metaphysical and ethical system that rejected the contemporaneous ideas of German idealism. He was among the first thinkers in Western philosophy to share and affirm significant tenets of Indian philosophy.
July 25, 1875 – June 5, 1961
Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology. Jung's work was influential in the fields of psychiatry, anthropology, archaeology, literature, philosophy, and religious studies. Jung worked as a research scientist at the famous Burghölzli hospital, under Eugen Bleuler.
December 19, 1917 – October 26, 1992
David Joseph Bohm was an American scientist who has been described as one of the most significant theoretical physicists of the 20th century and who contributed unorthodox ideas to quantum theory, neuropsychology and the philosophy of mind. Bohm advanced the view that quantum physics meant that the old Cartesian model of reality – that there are two kinds of substance, the mental and the physical, that somehow interact – was too limited.
6 BC – 64 AD
Lucius Annaeus Seneca (often known simply as Seneca) was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature. He was tutor and later advisor to emperor Nero. While he was later forced to commit suicide for alleged complicity in the Pisonian conspiracy to assassinate Nero.
November 6, 1867 – July 3, 1934
Marie Skłodowska Curie was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person and the only woman to win the Nobel Prize twice, and the only person to win the Nobel Prize in two different scientific fields. She was part of the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was also the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris, and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Pantheon in Paris.
July 25, 1894 – November 21, 1963
Aldous Leonard Huxley was an English writer and philosopher. He wrote nearly fifty books, both novels and non-fiction works, as well as wide-ranging essays, narratives, and poems. By the end of his life, Huxley was widely acknowledged as one of the foremost intellectuals of his time. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature seven times and was elected Companion of Literature by the Royal Society of Literature in 1962.
May 11, 1937 – June 21, 2008
George Denis Patrick Carlin was an American stand-up comedian, actor, social critic and author. Widely regarded as one of the most important and influential stand-up comics of all time, he was once dubbed "the dean of counterculture comedians". He was well known for his dark comedy and reflections on politics, the English language, psychology, religion, and various taboo subjects.
November 21, 1891 – March 8, 1995
Edward Louis Bernays was an Austrian-American pioneer in the field of public relations and propaganda, referred to in his obituary as "the father of public relations". Bernays was named one of the 100 most influential Americans of the 20th century by Life. He was the subject of a full length biography by Larry Tye called The Father of Spin (1999) and later an award-winning 2002 documentary for the BBC by Adam Curtis called The Century of the Self.
April 22, 1858 – October 3, 1947
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Planck made many contributions to theoretical physics, but his fame as a physicist rests primarily on his role as the originator of quantum theory, which revolutionized human understanding of atomic and subatomic processes.
September 16, 1930 – December 4, 2009
Emanuel James Rohn, professionally known as Jim Rohn, was an American entrepreneur, author and motivational speaker. He participated in a personal development business called "Adventures in Achievement", which featured both live seminars as well as personal development workshops. He presented seminars worldwide for more than 40 years. Rohn mentored Mark R. Hughes (the founder of Herbalife International) and life strategist Tony Robbins in the late 1970s.